Colorectal tumors can arise in any a part of the colon or rectum. Typically, tumors that arise on the proper side of the colon are caught later and have a worse prognosis than tumors that arise on the left side. Here are the four stages of the disease:
Stage 1 tumors haven’t invaded the wall of the bowel and typically are often removed at the time of colonoscopy by the physician conducting the procedure, who snips the expansion . Stage 1 tumors include cancers that are a part of a polyp, consistent with the ACS. This typically may be a cure if no tumor cells are left behind. If the cancer within the polyp is high grade or there are cancer cells at the sides of the polyp, additional surgery could also be needed, consistent with the ACS.
Stage 2 tumors are still located within the bowel wall or have skilled it but haven’t traveled to lymph nodes. When these tumors arise within the rectum, there’s a general recommendation to treat with radiotherapy after the tumors are removed as this reduces the prospect they’re going to recur. Stage 2 colon tumors are often cured by surgery alone.
Stage 3 colorectal tumors involve tumor cells that have spread to lymph glands near the first tumor. These tumors are treated by surgery and chemotherapy also as radiation for rectal tumors.
Stage 4 tumors are people who have spread to distant sites, including the liver, lungs, distant lymph nodes, the peritoneum (the space outside the bowels that if involved can cause swelling of the abdomen) or other organs. carcinoma is presumably to spread to the liver, while rectal cancer can spread to the lungs at advanced stages.